Moving beyond the hype of the potential for the IoT, there are some real engineering challenges that must be overcome in order to satisfy the intoxicating market predictions of IoT uptake across industrial and commercial markets. ABI Research estimates that the volume of data captured by IoT-connected devices exceeded 200 exabytes in 2014, and its annual total is forecast to grow seven-fold by the decade’s end, surpassing 1,600 exabytes—or 1.6 zettabytes—in 2020. So, how do we successfully create the devices that will handle all of this data?
Qian Yu, technical marketing manager at ARM says that from the physical implementation perspective, the design and production challenges come about due to functionality requirements, the limitations of flash technology, and economics.
In terms of functionality, one of the things that makes IoT SoC designs unique is their low power requirements, even as compared to mobile devices. And, their sleep-to-wake ratio is much higher. They still have similar frequency requirements, though, in order to ensure functionality. “As a result,” Yu says, designers need to focus on peak power and sleep leakage power optimisation without sacrificing too much performance.”
Christian Légaré, CTO and EVP, Micrium, notes that connectivity issues are also significant for IoT, as communication stacks may require their own processor. Légaré also emphasises the importance of defining an identity in hardware for security purposes, adding “It’s the only place where it can’t be modified or hacked.” Other security concerns for the IoT include maintaining privacy, anti-tampering, secure boot, and remote upgrades.
Obviously, small, single purpose, low-power IoT devices cannot handle all of these power management, connectivity, and security requirements, so what is the way forward? Légaré suggests an overall IoT approach that incorporates edge nodes (hubs or gateways). He says in this type of deployment, designers must answer questions such as: Where do you put the required computing resources in the system? How do you design the system so that it is future-proof? To be successful here, Légaré believes that embedded engineers need to work more closely with their colleagues further down the line, in IT. “This is not simple,” he says, “because both fields have their own set of technologies and vocabulary. However, for the IoT to be successful, embedded and IT engineers must come to understand each other.”
Moving into the realm of performance, Yu notes that some of the implementation and verification challenges include noise isolation, analogue to digital timing closure, and mixed-signal modelling. Also, he points out that the existing embedded flash technologies do not scale well below the 40 nm process. They require higher voltage than other types of logic blocks, so they consume more power.